You can also consume locally

You can also consume locally

In a world that is increasingly globalized, the trend to consume local products and opt for short distribution chains has become increasingly relevant. This approach not only has economic implications but also environmental and social ones, positively impacting citizens and the planet. However, this trend is far from becoming our routine food shopping practice.

According to data published by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in 2021, food is primarily distributed through supermarkets, hypermarkets, and discount stores, reaching 73% of sales, while traditional shops distribute 18% of food1. At the European level, direct sales between farmers and consumers only represent 2% of the fresh food market2.

Some forms of selling local or proximity products through short distribution chains include farmers’ markets, direct on-farm sales, or community-supported agriculture (CSA), a model in which consumers purchase subscriptions directly from farmers and in return, regularly receive fresh products like fruits, vegetables, and sometimes meat or dairy during the harvest season.

Consuming local products strengthens the economy of our region. By buying directly from local producers and farmers, we promote the growth of small and medium-sized businesses, generating employment and keeping resources within the community. This cycle of local consumption and production helps create a more resilient economy, less dependent on global fluctuations.

Short distribution chains, characterized by the minimal number of intermediaries between the producer and the consumer, have a direct impact on the freshness and quality of products. By reducing the time and distance of transport, food arrives fresher and more nutritious to our tables. Additionally, this reduction in transport decreases carbon emissions and the ecological footprint, significantly contributing to the fight against climate change.

From a social perspective, local consumption strengthens social ties. Knowing the producers and understanding the origin of the products we consume creates a deeper connection and a sense of belonging and responsibility towards our community. This direct relationship also allows for fairer trade, where producers receive adequate remuneration for their work, avoiding exploitation and promoting decent working conditions.

In terms of sustainability, short distribution chains promote more responsible and sustainable agricultural and production practices. Local producers often adopt more environmentally friendly farming methods, such as organic or regenerative agriculture, which preserve biodiversity and improve soil health. This contrasts with the intensive, large-scale practices of global food industries, which often result in environmental degradation and loss of natural resources.

FUSILLI_local consumption

However, there are barriers that are preventing the take-off of this type of distribution. The main limitations are the small volumes and limited variety of production that are not always able to meet the demand of large buyers, such as in the case of public purchases for hospitals, schools, etc. Additionally, the time and lack of specific producer’s skills can be considered barriers since, besides production tasks, they must perform marketing, advertising, sales, management, etc. Moreover, the higher price and lower convenience, meaning less variety in sizes, formats, pre-processed products, etc., of these types of products make them less adaptable to the lifestyle of many people compared to products sold in large distribution chains. There is also the lesser availability of hours or proximity that these markets can offer the consumer.

Research into how to minimize these barriers is key to tipping the balance towards a more responsible and sustainable production and consumption model in the long term. Greater consumer awareness, along with increased support from public agencies to generate and maintain strategies and actions that support local consumption, are essential.

Many cities and regions are implementing multiple, integrated strategies to promote the shortening of supply chains and stimulate the demand for locally and sustainably produced food. These represent a firm commitment to the development of low-carbon, resilient, and diversified food systems. Some examples are the Strategic Food Plan of Catalonia 2021-2026, the Municipal Action Plan of the Vitoria-Gasteiz Food Strategy 2017-2025, or the Food Corridors Strategy in Coimbra (Portugal).

Local consumption market_FUSILLI

Some of the actions that are part of these strategies include promoting an online sales network for local products, enhancing the commercialization of local products through the increase and improvement of producer market infrastructures, fair trade fairs, etc., creating a distribution network for local products and facilitating the adhesion of local producers to it, legislating and training public technicians to improve local producers’ access to public procurement, especially in tenders aimed at school canteens, among others.

These strategies and actions are being developed with the participation of many involved actors, from producers to consumer associations, including distributors, food companies, representatives of public agencies, etc., and are equipped with solid monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

CARTIF, through the FUSILLI project, is working in 12 European cities with the aim of shortening food distribution chains and contributing to the transition towards a more sustainable food system. This set of best practices and experiences are available to be adapted to any other context involved with local consumption and the sustainability of its citizens and planet.

And as an example of our commitment, CARTIF, in collaboration with the Association of Organic Producers Vallaecolid, offers its employees the possibility to buy local and seasonal products weekly and receive them at their workplace. It’s that easy! Are you willing to be part of a similar initiative?

1 Report of the food consume in Spain 2020. Available at:

2 Short food supply chains and local food systems in the EU, 2016. Available at:

The waters of innovation: How AI is Redefining Hydropower in Europe

The waters of innovation: How AI is Redefining Hydropower in Europe

The hydropower sector is a key driver of the energy transition in Europe. In 2022, renewable energies accounted for 41.2% of the total electricity consumption in Europe, with hydropower representing 29.9% of total renewable generation.

As more energy sources are integrated into the European energy landscape, hydropower plays an essential role due to its flexibility. While the generation from other renewable sources like solar or wind is subject to uncontrollable variable weather conditions, it is possible to decide when to turbine the water from a reservoir or river to generate energy. This way, the hydropower sector helps maintain stability in the electrical grid by balancing demand and generation.

Figure 1. Sources of renewable energy in gross electricity consumption in the EU, 2022, Eurostat

In addition to its fundamental contribution to reducing CO2 emissions, this type of energy offers other environmental and socio-economic benefits. It regulates river flows through its dams, acting against flood threats and providing water supply for human consumption and the agricultural sector. Moreover, it can affect the development of local economies by generating employment, retaining human capital, and creating tourist attractions.

Emerging as a fundamental solution in Europe’s energy transition, hydropower is not without challenges and risks: One of the major challenges in Europe is the high age of infrastructures (an average of 45 years compared to 30 years in regions like Asia-Pacific or 15 years in China1), causing inefficiencies in energy production, increased maintenance stoppages, and production costs due to the need for investment and repair.

Additionally, climatic events are making their effects felt in all regions of the world. In Europe, many areas are experiencing more frequent, intense, and prolonged droughts. In the second half of 2022, this situation became evident with a significant reduction in hydropower production, particularly noticeable in the south of the continent, where a near 15% decrease in production was recorded.

Figure 2. Evolution over time of Guadalquivir basin capacity, S.A.I.H Guadalquivir.

This situation necessitates addressing intelligent management of water and hydropower resources. The iAMP-Hydro project (intelligent Asset Management Platform for Hydropower), coordinated by Trinity College Dublin and involving CARTIF, emerges as an innovative response to the challenges facing the European hydropower sector.

Within the framework of the project, a package of digital solutions based on artificial intelligence will be developed, validated in five hydropower plants distributed between Spain and Greece. These solutions will assist plant operators in decision-making by considering environmental and socio-economic factors.

The project includes a predictive maintenance solution through the development of advanced sensors capable of real-time monitoring of the state of turbines and installations. These devices will collect data which, through deep learning-based AI algorithms, will predict possible malfunctions before they occur. This will not only significantly reduce maintenance costs by up to 10% but also enable optimal scheduling of planned shutdowns adjusted to market conditions and socio-economic needs.

Furthermore, a set of specialized sensors will monitor various biodiversity parameters, ensuring that plant operations have the minimum possible environmental impact.

Figure 3. Bermejales HPP, iAMP-Hydro project

Lastly, CARTIF is leading the use of artificial intelligence techniques and neural networks to create predictive flow models. These models are designed to analyze patterns in historical data, including climate, and will be able to anticipate the potential energy a hydropower plant can generate over the next 7 days. This anticipation will allow for up to 23% more efficient plant operation, ensuring water availability while minimizing waste. In extreme drought situations like those in southern Europe, predictive models are being implemented to assess the short- and medium-term recovery capacity of hydroelectric reserves, considering various climate scenarios and irrigation demands. These models will provide operators with a clear vision of the plant’s evolution in the medium term and allow them to optimize the selection of the most suitable turbines for each operational scenario.

Researchers predict that iAMP-Hydro will improve the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of the current hydropower fleet by reducing operating costs by €1000 million, cutting CO2 emissions by 1,260 tons, creating 10,000 future jobs, and enabling environmentally sustainable flow regulation through digital solutions.

Current estimates show that digitizing the existing 1,225 GW of hydropower worldwide could increase annual production by 42 TWh, equivalent to $5000 million in annual operating savings2.

1 IEA. Hydropower Special Market Report; International Energy Agency: Paris, France, 2021; p. 126

2 Kougias, Ioannis & Aggidis, George & Avellan, François & Deniz, Sabri & Lundin, Urban & Moro, Alberto & Muntean, Sebastian & Novara, Daniele & Pérez-Díaz, Juan & Quaranta, Emanuele & Schild, Philippe & Theodossiou, Nicolaos. (2019). Analysis of emerging technologies in the hydropower sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 113. 10.1016/j.rser.2019.109257

Water guardians: innovative strategies to conserve our most precious resource

Water guardians: innovative strategies to conserve our most precious resource

Water security is an essential concept defined as ´the ability of humankind to protect sustainable access to water, ensuring well-being, livelihoods and socio-economic development´. This concept includes taking measures to protect the ecosystems that provide this vital resource and to secure the ecosystem services linked to water. It is not only about ensuring that there is enough water, but also that it meets high quality standards and meets the agricultural, industrial, energy and domestic needs of a specific region.

The preservation of environmental systems, which constitute the natural sources of water and related ecosystem services becomes essential.

The Global Water Partnership1, an international network dedicated to sustainable water management, describes a water secure world as one in which every person has access to safe and affordablewater for a healthy and productive life, and in which communities are protected from floods, droughts and water-borne diseases. It adds that water security promotes environmental protection and social justice in the face of conflicts over shared resources.

Source: Rául Sánchez Francés. CARTIF

The UN has sounded the alarm about the water deficit that is expected in the future. According to its estimates, by 2030 the Earth could face a 40% deficit if current consumption patterns are not changed. Population growth, especially in urban areas, has increased pollution that affects water quality, not only through air pollution, but also through changes in land use. Water consumption has doubled in the last half century, and it is estimated that by 2025 at least two-thirds of the world´s population will live in areas of high water stress.

Climate change also poses an additional risk to water security, reducing water availability and making it increasingly unpredictable in many parts of the world, leading to major supply problems. In addition, extreme weather events, such as droughts and floods, affect rich and poor alike, disrupting traditional livelihoods and production patterns.

In Castilla y León, water security is already a critical issue, given the importance of our agricultural sector in food production, twhich is highly dependent on a constatn supply of water. The region´s agriculture relies heavily on the production of cereals, wine and horticultural products, and is being affected by climate variability, including prolonged droughts that deplete water resources and jeopardise the sustainability of crops. Similarly, the region is experiencing increasing water stress aggravated by climate change, which threatens food production and affects the balance of the rural economy, thus increasing the already pressing problem of depopulation of our villages or rural environments.

Farmers face an increasingly difficult challenge: maintaining productivity in a context of limited water resources. Many have had to adapt their techniques, investing in efficient irrigation and crop diversification to mitigate the impact of droughts. However, these solutions come at a high cost that not everyone can afford, highlighting the urgency of finding more inclusive approaches. This is where Nature based Solutions (NbS) come in, offering a sustainable alternative to follow.

Source: CARTIF

Nature-Based Solutions are vital to address these problems in a creative way and at the same time provide additional sustainability benefits. UNESCO, in its World Water Development Report, argues that NbS can improve water supply and quality while mitigating the impact of natural disasters. A clear example is restored watersheds and wetlands, which act as natural filters for water purification. By mimicking natural processes, NbS improve water availability and quality and reduce water-related risks.

It is essential to highlight the importance of conserving wetlands and restoring river basins the region, as they act as natural filters, improving water quality and regulating flow in times of drought. Techniques such as agro-forestry and crop rotation can also be explored to maintain soil fertility and reduce dependence on intensive irrigation systems. These practices mimic natural processes and help maintain a balance between production and conservation.

The Global Water Security Index (GWSI)3 , which integrates criteria such as water availability, accesibility, security and quality, standardises water vulnerabilities and risks, helping to identify priority areas where action is urgently needed. This index also highlights the need for innovative strategies that combine green infrastructure with traditional solutions, maximising value for society.

Soluciones basadas en la naturaleza en Sassari
Proyecto NATMED. FIA system (Forested Infiltration Area). SbN implemented in Sassari (Cerdeña – Italia).  Source: Raúl Sánchez Francés.

It is also important to highlight the relevance and scope of water security in urban settings, where it encompasses five dimensions: environmental, domestic, economic, urban and resilience to natural disasters. All these aspects make the lack of water security one of the greatest risks to global prosperity and underline the urgent need to take care of the natural resource “water”. This implies sustainbale management, responsible consumption, combating degradation and reuse.

In the Natural Resources and Climate Area of CARTIF, we develop diverse projects related to sustainable water management as basis for water insurance, both for human consumption and for agricultural consumption.

We coordinate the PRIMA NAT-med project, in which we aim to develop, implement and validate a set of Nature-based Solutions, combined in Full Water Cycle-NbS (FWC-Nbs), integrated in existing water infrastructures (grey or natural) and based on specific phases of the water cycle, to optimise the provision of water-related ecosystem services (quality and quantity) and water-dependent ecosystem services (social, economic and environmental aspects), empowering stakeholders and local communities in the Mediterranean region. NATMed will also demonstrate the effect of different SbN-CCA in five case studies located in Spain, Greece, Italy, Turkey, Algeria.

Similarly, through our CIRAWA project coordination work, we work in 8 regions in Cape Verde, Ghana, Senegal and The Gambia to improve agriculture by developing new agroecology-based practices that build on existing local and scientific knowledge to help create more resilient food supply chains in West Africa, and where sustainable water resource management is essential.

Puntos de acceso al agua para agricultura. Proyecto CIRAWA
CIRAWA project. Access points to water for agriculture at the Maio Island (Cape Verde). Source: Raúl Sánchez Francés.

From the Natural Resources Area of CARTIF, like many other ´guardians of water`, we work to improve water security, using Nature-based Solutions, as part of our vital commitment to the future of the planet. Only through intelligent and collaborative management can we build a world in which every person has access to water and can live with dignity, ensuring that future generations will also enjoy it.


2 WWAP & ONU-Agua. (2018). Informe Mundial de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Desarrollo de los Recursos Hídricos 2018: Soluciones basadas en la naturaleza para la gestión del agua. París: UNESCO.

3 Measuring global water security towards sustainable development goals

Food reformulation; a step forward, that it is possible

Food reformulation; a step forward, that it is possible

Currently, one of the factors directly associated with disease risk and mortality is unhealthy diets. These diets are characterised by low intakes of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, low in essential fatty acids, low in fibre and a high in sugar, salt, unhealthy fats and additives. These diets and low intakes of essential nutrients are even greater concern to more vulnerable groups, raising the need to embark on a path of change.

As part of the need to make food systems healthier and more sustainable, healthier and more sustainable diets are required in which foods are formulated in a way that is more in line with nutritional recommendations, consumer tastes, more adapted to the limits of the planet´s existing resources, the advancement and availability of technology, all within the framework of existing regulations.

The food industry has become one of the focal points of the global Sustainable Development Agenda due to its contribution to GDP and importance in food security in developed and developing countries. In the implicit need for commitment to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), real efforts need to be made to ensure efficiency in the food industry. As part of this strategy, innovation represents an important resource of competitive advantage for the sector.

According to the World Health Organisation, reformulation is a critical strategy for achieving these SDGs and even more, wso on the premise that these foods should be affordable.

Reformulation or modification of the composition or processing of foods and beverages is the perfect option to improve them, replacing or eliminating those components that can be potentially critical for our health or increasing those that provide some benefit. Reformulation builds on the foundations of food technology, but needs innovation to take that step from existing foods to those with a more up-to-date and global concept in line with health and sustainability trends.

Thus, innovation in food development is crucial not only in bringing new products to the market, but also in improving and streamlining the food industry´s own processes and in its mission to satisfy consumer needs.

Ideally, in my view, the focus should be on creating products that contribute to a healthy diet within the compelling framework of current and future needs for process efficiency and integrating the use of technologies that facilitate this.

Thus, innovation in food products and reformulation includes improvement from a nutritonal point of view; salt, sugar or fat, to cite some well-known examples, or the incorporation of ingredients that increase their value, such as dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals.

First, we must focus on which are the aspects to be reformulated in order to integrate all the above-mentioned factors in this first point. In reality, there are many aspects to take into account, but we are going to pick out some of the most relevant ones:

  • Technological aspects: incorporation of ingredients to enrich or reduce the ingredients to improve the nutritional profile, ingredients to generate a functionality inside the product (texture, viscosity, conservation…) and the compatibility on the reformulation with the rest of ingredients, cost of production (ingredients, energy, water) needs of a special packaging, of a new technology.
  • Organoleptic considerations: improvement of sensory profile, texture and appearance.
  • Market trends: formats, sizes, increased shelf life, specific consumer demand (allergies, intolerances, etc.) demand for sustainability .
  • Other aspects: associated costs, impact on the environment, comersialitation vias, applicable regulations, etc.

As we can see, it is no doubt a complex venture to integrate all our desires into a single product.

In any case, and with the clear objective of where we want to go, we must take into account the type or types of ingredientes we are going to use in reformulation, how they are going to affect us from a technological point of view, the legislation that is applied to the product and the parameters related to safety and shelf life, and above all, the sensory acceptance by consumers.

The food industry must focus its efforts in alignment with health strategies and promote foods with a better nutritional profile, as well as being more sustainable and competitive. In this sense, aligning all the points that underpin this change includes the need to innovate in a smart, evidence-based way with healthier, more sustainable and safer foods where the use of technology and the integration of the circular economy are naturally present.

Paving this path between science and the market is CARTIF´s objective, where, from the Food area,we work on the generation of value proposals for the food industry, developing healthy and innovative foods that combine technical feasibility, economic profitability and always in line with consumer demand. In this way, also from theFood area we contribute to sustainable development in favour of a more prosperous society, with what we do best: innovate.

Beyond reality. Extended reality

Beyond reality. Extended reality

Imagine finding out that the pilot of your next flight will be using Apple Vision Pro while in command of the plane. Would you feel comfortable boarding that plane? If your answer is no, you might think the pilot is reckless and that your life is at risk. On the other hand, if your answer is yes, you probably know the potential of using this device in such a situation.

Recently, the world was caught up in this debate when a pilot in the United States was recorded using Apple Vision Pro during a flight1. The pilot claimed to have improved productivity with this device. However, he faced significant criticism and had to apologize after deleting the video.

Why did this case cause so much outrage? In reality, many sectors use these types of devices daily, such as surgery, architecture, engineering, and training. The reason is simple: we are progressing. Although humans are skeptical of new technologies, we recognize that they can improve our lives. A clear example is e-commerce; when it started, many people thought it was dangerous. Now, Amazon is the fifth most valuable company in the United States, and in Spain, 39% of the population shops online at least once a month2.

It’s likely that over time, this feeling will also dissipate in the case of extended reality. This term, which encompasses virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality, can be confusing for many. Each technology serves a specific purpose based on the level of immersion: virtual reality creates entirely digital environments, augmented reality overlays digital elements onto the physical reality, and mixed reality combines both to provide spatial awareness to digital elements. This concept is best understood when looking at the following image.

Differences between virtual reality, augmented reality and mixed reality. Source: Avi Barel3

In the image, you can see how in mixed reality, an object like a rubber duck can recognize its surroundings and position itself behind a table instead of going through it as it would in augmented reality. This is the magic of mixed reality!

Although Apple Vision Pro has incredible features, similar devices have existed for a long time, something that CARTIF is well aware of. That’s why in the Industrial and Digital Systems Division, we have long been using the Microsoft HoloLens 2 mixed reality device for various purposes.

In the Baterurgia project, we are using this technology to automate the disassembly of electric car batteries and promote human-robot interaction. To achieve this, we rely on robotics and computer vision to detect screws present in a battery. Through the lenses of the Microsoft HoloLens 2, the operator sees holograms indicating the position of the screws in space. The operator can select a screw with a finger or gaze and issue instructions to the robot via voice commands. The system provides feedback on the progress of the activity, allowing the operator to perform other tasks simultaneously.

Secuence for picking up a screw (Recorded with Microsoft HoloLens 2)

  1. Display of the camera image showing detected screws.
  2. Identification and marking of the screws.
  3. The operator selects a screw.
  4. The robot picks up the selected screw.

As you have seen, mixed reality is gaining popularity and being applied in more sectors. The high cost of products like Apple Vision Pro and Microsoft HoloLens 2, which are around $3500, is a significant limitation. However, new more affordable devices like Meta Quest 3, which costs around $500, are making this technology more accessible for companies and users. Along these lines, it is projected that the global sales of extended reality devices will increase to 105 million by 20254 .

If this post has intrigued you and you wish to explore more about extended reality and its impact, I’d be happy to share more information with you!

1 J. Serrano, «Video of Man ‘Flying’ Plane While Wearing the Apple Vision Pro Sparks Outrage,» GIZMODO, 7 Febrero 2024. Available:

2 Statista, «Frecuencia con la que los consumidores compran online al mes en España en 2023». Available:

3 A. Barel, «The differences between VR, AR & MR,» Medium, 7 Agosto 2017. [En línea]. Available:

4 Statista, «Ventas de auriculares/gafas de realidad extendida (RE) en todo el mundo desde 2016 hasta 2025». Available:

REHOUSE. Working towards accelerating the EU building renovation rate

REHOUSE. Working towards accelerating the EU building renovation rate

In a world where sustainability is increasingly at the forefront of our concerns, the need for innovative solutions to transform our built environment is more pressing than ever. The current state of the EU building stock presents a significant challenge, acting as one of the largest energy consumers in Europe and responsible for over one third of the EU’s emissions.

Recognizing the urgency of the situation, the European Commission unveiled a new strategy in October 2020: “A Renovation Wave for Europe – Greening our buildings, creating jobs, improving lives.” This strategy represents a crucial step forward, aiming to incentivize investments in renovation and support the implementation of efficient methods and technologies.

Despite these efforts, the reality remains stark – over 75% of the EU building stock is not energy-efficient, and the annual renovation rate languishes at a mere 1%. The strategy emphasizes the need for deep renovations, those achieving over 60% reduction in energy consumption, as a top priority. The overarching goal? To double annual energy renovation rates over the next decade, not only to reduce emissions but also to enhance the quality of life for building occupants and create green jobs in the construction sector.

To achieve the depth and volume of renovation required, a strong and competitive construction sector is essential. Embracing innovation and sustainability is paramount to increasing quality and reducing production and installation costs. The Built4People European Partnership highlights three pillars crucial to this endeavour:

  1. Industrialized Technological Solutions: Embracing advanced technologies to streamline construction processes.

  1. Digitalization of the Construction Industry: Leveraging digital tools such as Building Information Modelling (BIM) to improve transparency and efficiency.

  1. Integration of Circularity Principles: Incorporating circular economy principles across the entire value chain, from materials sourcing to waste management.

In the midst of this pressing need for renovation innovation, REHOUSE emerges as a beacon of hope. Coordinated by CARTIF and under the Horizon Europe program, REHOUSE is poised to lead the charge in innovation within the construction sector. With a laser focus on deep renovations and circularity principles, REHOUSE aims to develop and demonstrate eight renovation packages incorporating promising technology innovations up to TRL7 (Integrated pilot system demonstrated).

These renovation packages are meticulously designed to overcome the main barriers that impede current EU renovation ratios. Through the integration of active/passive elements, prefabrication, and off-site construction, REHOUSE seeks to deliver affordable and sustainable renovation solutions with the flexibility to address nearly 100% of building renovation challenges at the EU level.

But what truly sets REHOUSE apart is its people-centric approach. By actively engaging residents and building owners throughout the renovation process, the project ensures that solutions are not only sustainable but also affordable, satisfactory, and attractive.

REHOUSE is now at its halfway point, demonstrating remarkable progress and achievements. The project has already established the basis for the social innovation strategy, detailed the specifications of innovative solutions, and produced digital versions of the Renovation Packages. Additionally, an innovative evaluation framework and technical building diagnosis of the demo-sites have been completed. The validation of the Renovation Packages (RPs) is underway to achieve TRL6 (Prototype system verified), accompanied by the development of guidelines for their industrialization. Furthermore, the project is actively defining specifications for the Digital Building Logbook, designing and preparing the groundwork for the later construction of the demo-sites, and outlining the pathway towards market achievement after the project concludes. These efforts mark the beginning of our journey to revolutionize renovation processes, driven by innovation and collaboration.

Join us on this transformative journey as we pave the way for a brighter, greener tomorrow with REHOUSE. Together, we can reshape our built environment, create sustainable spaces, and preserve our planet for generations to come.

This project has received funding from the European Union´s Horizon Europe research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 101079951.